us v leon justia

Posted on October 8th, 2020

At oral argument, counsel advised us that no trial date has been set. Contacting Justia or any attorney through this site, via web form, email, or otherwise, does not create an attorney-client relationship. Although the police conducted an independent investigation on the basis of this tip, both the District Court and the Court of Appeals concluded that the additional information gathered by the officers failed to corroborate the details of the informant's tip and was "as consistent with innocence as . That being so, the ancient rule of respondeat superior furnishes us with a simple, direct and reasonable basis for refusing to admit evidence secured in violation of constitutional or statutory provisions. A warrant is a judicial mandate to an officer to conduct a search or make an arrest, and the officer has a sworn duty to carry out its provisions. I share the view, expressed by Justice Stewart for the Court in Faretta v. California, 422 U.S. 806 (1975), that "[p]ersonal liberties are not rooted in the law of averages." 665, 709-710 (1970) ("The exclusionary rule is not aimed at special deterrence since it does not impose any direct punishment on a law enforcement official who has broken the rule. 82-1771, however, the Government now admits - at least for the tactical purpose of achieving what it regards as a greater benefit - that the substance, as well as the letter, of the Fourth Amendment was violated. Second, there exists no evidence suggesting that judges and magistrates are inclined to ignore or subvert the Fourth Amendment or that lawlessness among these actors requires application of the extreme sanction of exclusion. By refusing to admit evidence gained as a result of such conduct, the courts hope to instill in those particular investigating officers, or in their future counterparts, a greater degree of care toward the rights of an accused.

All that our cases require is that a warrant contain a description sufficient to enable the officers who execute it to ascertain with reasonable effort where they are to search and what they are to seize. It is clear, first, that the deference accorded to a magistrate's finding of probable cause does not preclude inquiry into the knowing or reckless falsity of the affidavit on which that determination was based. There may be cases where a principled distinction between benefit to a defendant and benefit to a defendant's corporation could be drawn. In the GAO study, suppression motions were filed in 10.5% of all federal criminal cases surveyed, but of the motions filed, approximately 80-90% were denied. The Fourth Amendment exclusionary rule should not be applied so as to bar the use in the prosecution's case in chief of evidence obtained by officers acting in reasonable reliance on a search warrant issued by a detached and neutral magistrate but ultimately found to be invalid. § 2B4.1(b) (1) in determining the specific offense characteristics of Leon's conduct. ); U.S.S.G. A judge issued the warrant and the police recovered large quantities of illegal drugs. We hold that, regardless of the presumption challenged by Leon, the evidence was more than sufficient to support the magistrate's determination. Defendants seeking suppression of the fruits of allegedly unconstitutional searches or seizures undoubtedly raise live controversies which Art. Murphy, Judicial Review of Police Methods in Law Enforcement: The Problem of Compliance by Police Departments, 44 Texas L. Rev. Since the affidavit was available for after-the-fact review, the Massachusetts courts could readily ascertain the limits of the officers' authority under the warrant. If the overall educational effect of the exclusionary rule is considered, application of the rule to even those situations in which individual police officers have acted on the basis of a reasonable but mistaken belief that their conduct was authorized can still be expected to have a considerable long-term deterrent effect. Where, however, as in this case, the corporation is, for all practical purposes, the defendantand there has been no evidence to suggest otherwisethis distinction makes no difference.

Because the only constitutionally cognizable injury has already been "fully accomplished" by the police by the time a case comes before the courts, the Constitution is not itself violated if the judge decides to admit the tainted evidence. 1985) case opinion from the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit [ Footnote 7 ] Indeed, the Court in Mapp expressly noted that the "factual considerations" raised in Wolf concerning the effectiveness of alternative remedies "are not basically relevant to a decision that the exclusionary rule is an essential ingredient of the Fourth Amendment." UNPUBLISHED UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE FOURTH CIRCUIT No. [1] Of course, now that restitution is mandatory, see 18 U.S.C. Stone v. Powell, 428 U.S. 465, 486 (1976). [The] assignment of the burden is merely a way of announcing a predetermined conclusion." 665, 709-710 (1970). Thus, if the majority's assumption is correct, that even after paying heavy deference to the magistrate's finding and resolving all doubt in its favor, there is no probable cause here, then by definition - as a matter of constitutional law - [468 U.S. 897, 969]   the officers' conduct was unreasonable. Section 3142(f) describes in what cases a "judicial officer shall hold a hearing" to determine whether pretrial detention is appropriate to "reasonably assure the appearance of the person as required and the safety of any other person and the community." See Delker, 757 F.2d at 1400; United States v. Acevedo-Ramos, 755 F.2d 203, 206 (1st Cir. In order to ensure that such an abdication of the magistrate's duty does not occur, courts must continue to conscientiously review the sufficiency of affidavits on which warrants are issued." by Gerald H. Goldstein and Marvin Miller. § 3E1.1(a). But, as troubling and important as today's new doctrine may be for the administration of criminal justice in this country, the mode of analysis used to generate that doctrine also requires critical examination, for it may prove in the long run to pose the greater threat to our civil liberties.

In an opinion joined by Justice Harlan and Justice Stewart, he wrote:     "Today the Court renders this municipal experience, which dates back to Colonial days, for naught by overruling Frank v. Maryland [ 359 U.S. 360 (1959)] and by striking down hundreds of city ordinances throughout the country and jeopardizing thereby the health, welfare, and safety of literally millions of people. Based on this surveillance and information from a second informant, a detective wrote an affidavit and a judge issued a search warrant. Cf.

Where there is a close causal connection between the illegal seizure and the confession, not only is exclusion of the evidence more likely to deter similar police misconduct in the future, but use of the evidence is more likely to compromise the integrity of the courts." Standing to invoke the rule has thus been limited to cases in which the prosecution seeks to use the fruits of an illegal search or seizure against the victim of police misconduct. 18 U.S.C. National Institute of Justice, Criminal Justice Research Report - The Effects of the Exclusionary Rule: A Study in [468 U.S. 897, 951]   California 1 (1982). With him on the briefs were Assistant Attorney General Trott, Deputy Solicitor General Frey, Kathryn A. Oberly, and Robert J. Erickson. United States v. Lieberman, 971 F.2d 989, 996 (3d Cir. 25 Those who sought to amend the Constitution to include a Bill of Rights repeatedly voiced the view that the evil which had to be addressed was the issuance of warrants on insufficient evidence. 14   [468 U.S. 897, 956]Â, Although the Court brushes these concerns aside, a host of grave consequences can be expected to result from its decision to carve this new exception out of the exclusionary rule. . After today's decisions, there will be little reason for reviewing courts to conduct such a conscientious review; rather, these courts will be more likely to focus simply on the question of police good faith. A at ¶ 3. conferred.". 11, 1998), Exh. It was eminently "reasonable.". [ Footnote 28 ] For at least two reasons, the exclusionary rule is a better remedy than a civil action against an offending officer. But see United States v. Karathanos, 531 F.2d 26, 33-34 (CA2), cert.

The Court's explanation for its failure to decide the merits of the Fourth Amendment question in No. . There was simply no "occasion or opportunity for officers to rummage at large," Zurcher v. Stanford Daily, 436 U.S. 547, 566 (1978). (n.1(c)). Nor would an officer manifest objective good faith in relying on a warrant based on an affidavit so lacking in indicia of probable cause as to render official belief in its existence entirely unreasonable.

Brown v. Illinois, 422 U.S., at 610 -611 (POWELL, J., concurring in part); see Illinois v. Gates, supra, at 263-264 (WHITE, J., concurring in judgment). See, e. g., Ybarra v. Illinois, 444 U.S. 85 (1979); Torres v. Puerto Rico, 442 U.S. 465 (1979); Almeida-Sanchez v. United States, 413 U.S. 266 (1973); Sibron v. New York, 392 U.S. 40 (1968); Berger v. New York, 388 U.S. 41 (1967).

[468 U.S. 897, 944]Â. See ante, at 918-921. The Court holds that physical evidence seized by police officers reasonably relying upon a warrant issued by a detached [468 U.S. 897, 931]   and neutral magistrate is admissible in the prosecution's case in chief, even though a reviewing court has subsequently determined either that the warrant was defective.

. Mapp v. Ohio, supra, at 661-662 (Black, J., concurring); Agnello v. United States, 269 U.S. 20, 33 -34 (1925). [ Footnote 20 ] See Franks v. Delaware, 438 U.S. 154, 165 , 169-170 (1978); Whiteley v. Warden, 401 U.S. 560, 564 (1971); Spinelli v. United States, 393 U.S., at 415 -416; United States v. Ventresca, 380 U.S., at 108 -109; Aguilar v. Texas, 378 U.S., at 113 -115; Nathanson v. United States, 290 U.S. 41 (1933); Byars v. United States, 273 U.S. 28 (1927). [ Footnote 8 ] See Lo-Ji Sales, Inc. v. New York, 442 U.S. 319, 325 (1979); Andresen v. Maryland, 427 U.S., at 480 -482; Marcus v. Search Warrant, 367 U.S. 717, 732 -733 (1961).

But what the Court overlooks is that the deterrence rationale for the rule is not designed to be, nor should it be thought of as, a form of "punishment" of individual police officers for their failures to obey the restraints imposed by the Fourth Amendment.

But here there is no basis for Leon's claim that Judge Telesca merely deferred to the magistrate's findings. [ Footnote 5 ] Indeed, the "defect" in the warrant was that it authorized - albeit mistakenly - a search for quite particular "things to be seized," controlled substances, rather than the evidence described in the affidavit supporting the warrant application. [ Footnote 12 ] Even if respondent had standing to assert his right to be able to ascertain the officers' authority from the four corners of the warrant, it is doubtful that he could succeed.

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