spleen functionPosted on October 8th, 2020
The spleen also synthesizes the immune system peptides properdin and tuftsin 6). Other cytokines, called colony stimulating factors (CSFs), stimulate leukocyte production in red bone marrow and activate macrophages. Additional reporting by Alina Bradford, Live Science contributor. This is because the liver can take over many of the spleen's functions.
Some problems associated with the spleen are: According to Knowlton, spleen lacerations or ruptures "usually occur from trauma (like a car accident or contact sports)." Splenomegaly.
Boston: Butterworths; 1990. Massive hemorrhage commonly occurs from injuries to this friable vascular organ. American Association for the Surgery of Trauma. Excess red blood cells and platelets eventually can clog your spleen and affect normal functioning. According to the National Cancer Institute, adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma can have a spleen stage. The patient then may be observed in the ICU/floor depending on severity and other trauma to the patient. Activated T cells interact directly with antigen-bearing cells. On occasion, platelet deficiency may occur of the spleen stores too many platelets and does not release enough of them into the blood. The presence of an enlarged spleen should lead to examination of the peripheral blood by the physician. Naturally acquired active immunity occurs when a person exposed to a pathogen develops a disease. A length of 11 cm-20 cm indicates splenomegaly and a length greater than 20cm is definitive of massive splenomegaly 9). These include:3 1. The paediatric Liver and Spleen. Volume 2.
The spleen has a few important functions: 2009 Oct; 96(10):1114-21. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19787754/, Debnath D, Valerio D. Atraumatic rupture of the spleen in adults. One of the spleen’s main jobs is to filter your blood. The mechanism underlying splenic enlargement varies based on the etiology. Article: Ligation of patent ductus venosus in a child with pulmonary arterial... National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Spleen and Lymphatic System (For Parents), Spleen removal - laparoscopic - adults - discharge, Spleen removal - open - adults - discharge, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. A combination of serum testing and imaging studies may definitively diagnose splenomegaly and the underlying cause. This is reflected in the peripheral blood by thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, rapid red blood cell destruction, or a combination of these findings. The spleen is responsible for the production and maturation of IgM, B lymphocytes, and opsonins 1). Your spleen is an organ located just below your left rib cage.
It can become significantly larger when a person is sick or injured. Patients with underlying liver disease may present with symptoms related to alcohol abuse or hepatitis. The spleen is the largest organ of the lymphatic system. The human spleen in situ. The most common physical symptom associated with splenomegaly is vague abdominal discomfort 15). It is part of the innate defense because as a result of the fever the body becomes inhospitable to certain pathogens. The spleen’s external surface can be divided into two portions: the diaphragmatic surface, and the visceral surface. Specific vaccines stimulate active immunity against a variety of diseases, including typhoid fever, cholera, whooping cough, diphtheria, tetanus, polio, chickenpox, measles (rubeola), German measles (rubella), mumps, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and bacterial pneumonia. An enlarged spleen is not always a sign of a problem. Some of the newly formed B cells give rise to cells that differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells. One might need to use a dialysis machine to clean toxins from the blood. Function One of the spleen’s main jobs is to filter your blood. Production and release of antibodies continues for several weeks.
Additionally, interleukin-1 helps activate T cells, whereas interleukin-2 causes T cells to proliferate. In adults, there has been no reported predominance in prevalence based on ethnicity, sex, or age. It is the largest organ in the body’s lymphatic system, which is responsible for promoting immune function, filtering the blood, and managing blood volume. The spleen will save any useful components from the old blood cells, including iron, so they can be reused in new cells. It makes up the majority of tissue in most healthy spleens.
Leukemia is a cancer of the blood cells. Don’t share personal items like silverware, toothbrushes, or drinks with other people, especially if you know they’ve been sick with an infection like mono. Many different conditions can cause the spleen to enlarge, especially diseases that cause blood cells to break down too quickly. (Moderate drinking means no more than one drink a day for women, and two for men.).
Your lymph nodes and liver can take over many of the spleen’s important functions. Isr J Med Sci. 1977;112(4):422–425. The Merck Manuals: Merck Manual Consumer Version. In other instances, antibodies cover the toxic portions of antigen molecules and neutralize their effects (neutralization). Mosby year Book; 1991. pp. Abdominal bloating, distended abdomen, anorexia, and/or early satiety may also occur. The spleen sits in the upper left part of your abdomen. Located in the upper left region of the abdominal cavity, the spleen's primary function is to filter bloodof damaged cells, cellular debris, and pathogens such as bacteriaand viruses. *Advance one grade for multiple injuries up to grade III. © 2005-2020 Healthline Media a Red Ventures Company. Jessie Szalay - Live Science Contributor
This is because the spleen processes a large blood supply, so rupture of the spleen may lead to rapid, massive blood loss. It faces forward and curves inward, like a soup spoon. It is located between the 9th and 11th ribs. In certain cases, a surgeon may opt for one large incision, instead. The spleen most importantly protects against infections from polysaccharide-encapsulated bacteria including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae type B, Neisseria meningitidis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Klebsiella, and group B Streptococci (SHiNE SKiS) 2). Which of the following is NOT true of the spleen? If your spleen is too damaged, you might need surgery to remove it. It's often discovered during a routine physical exam. The spleen also makes certain substances that have an important role in inflammation and healing. An enlargement of the spleen that leads to the destruction of too many blood cells is a condition called hypersplenism. Visit our corporate site. This can lead to removal of the spleen. Accessed June 14, 2016. Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books and newsletters from Mayo Clinic. Extensive lymphadenopathy, weight loss, night sweats, and an enlarged spleen would suggest a malignant lymphoproliferative disease. The red pulp, which fills the remaining spaces of the lobules, surrounds the venous sinuses. The red pulp of the spleen serves the circulatory system by filtering the blood, and acting as a recycling station for red blood cells and a storage point for other important blood components. https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/blood-disorders/spleen-disorders/enlarged-spleen. The normal position of the spleen is within the peritoneal cavity in the left upper quadrant of the abdominal cavity adjacent to ribs nine through 12, just beneath the left diaphragm.
1. The normal weight of the adult spleen is 70 g-200 g, spleen weight of 400 g-500 g indicates splenomegaly and spleen weight greater than 1000 g is definitive of massive splenomegaly 10). A normal spleen ranges in length from 6 to 13 cm and in weight from 75 to 200 g 3). Accessed June 14, 2016. "Mayo," "Mayo Clinic," "MayoClinic.org," "Mayo Clinic Healthy Living," and the triple-shield Mayo Clinic logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. http://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg=abdominct#preparation. Landaw SA, et al. Figure 2. Causes of Splenomegaly (enlarged spleen). The term literally comes from “anti-” for “antibody” and “gen” for “beginning.”. Yes, you can live without your spleen. Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, Az. According to the Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, when blood flows into the spleen, red blood cells must pass through narrow passages within the organ. This content does not have an English version. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499949, Armitage JO. You can live without a spleen. 3.
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