ww1 artillery shell casing identification

Posted on October 8th, 2020

Throughout the First World War, the 18-pounder was operated by the Royal Field Artillery as the standard field gun. After the First World War, the variety of ammunition was reduced, although an armour piercing HE shell was developed. [49], For the Third Battle of Ypres in July 1917, the plan was for wire cutting to be done by mortars and howitzers, "to conceal the strength of the field guns". 18-pounder ammunition requirements in 1917 were generally equal quantities of shrapnel and HE. With Britain now attacking on the Western Front from 1915 onwards, barrages were used to neutralize defenders during an attack (first used some 15 years earlier). This was a mixture of ammonium nitrate and lower quality TNT, various proportions were used but eventually 80% ammonium nitrate and 20% TNT became standard. Brigade or group commanders should be given a task and allowed to carry it out". Legal Notice - International Military Antiques, Inc observes all Federal, State and local laws. In this case, we have. During the Second Boer War, the British government realised that its field artillery was being overtaken by the more modern "quick-firing" guns of other major powers, and investigated replacements for its existing field gun, the BL 15-pounder 7 cwt. With a proper barrage program and fuze setting, timed shrapnel creeping barrage was considered optimal. The lower carriage comprised a single hollow steel trail fixed to the centre of the axle-tree. Reduced wheel size from 5 ft (1.5 m) to 4 ft 8 in (1.42 m) was also accepted (it had been a matter the Equipment Committee had to investigate) which saved weight. Subsequently, wooden wheels were replaced by new axles, steel wheels, pneumatic tyres and modern brakes. The parallel inside walls of the shell made it suitable for filling using pre-formed blocks of explosive as well as pouring. Quoting War Office Artillery Notes No. It was maintained between the wars and converted to 25pdr during WWII. 4 January/February 1917. White phosphorus smoke shells became available in small quantities in 1916, and in 1918 chemical and incendiary shells were provided. The Mk IIs, with their pole trails, had the American 'Martin Parry' conversion to produce the Mk IIPA on 7.50 X 24" wheels. The nine 18-pounder guns were used in the infantry support role until grouped together to form an artillery corps in March 1923. US Army War College, August 1917. Ammunition was passed from the wagon to the loader. This blew off the shell nose and fired the bullets forward in a cone like a shotgun – they were effective up to 300 yards from the burst. The Ordnance QF 18-pounder,[note 3] or simply 18-pounder gun, was the standard British Empire field gun of the First World War-era. The U.S. was reluctant to enter the war, but due to hostile German actions towards neutral naval vessels, the U.S. finally entered the war in 1917.
However, the first month of the war showed that they were worth having and the first HE rounds arrived in September 1914. [18], Battlefield experience in 1914 and 1915 showed up the weakness of the original recuperator springs (which returned the barrel to firing position after recoil) and loss of oil in the recuperator under intense firing. 80 "Time & Percussion" fuze (based on a Krupp design). This action effectively ended the German advance. Lieutenant-Colonel C N F Broad DSO, R.A., This page was last edited on 26 September 2020, at 02:42. However, it is ultimately the responsibility of the buyer to be in compliance of laws that govern their specific location. TNT was introduced, but this too was expensive, particularly in its pure form required for shells so eventually Amatol was adopted. For questions or accessibility help - please call (908) 903-1200. 10-12 : Specifications and manufacturing method for British 18-pounder Shrapnel shell, Fuzes, Cartridge, Primer. Media related to QF 18 pounder Mk IV at Wikimedia Commons The 18-pounder Mk IV, with its box trail which allowed it to fire in a high trajectory, had begun its evolution into the more versatile 25-pounder gun-howitzer. The original shrapnel shells had a relatively blunt ogive – 1.5 circular radius head (crh), the newer ones were 2 crh. for creeping barrages, due partly to shrapnel directing its force forward hence being safer for those following, especially if it fell short. Chemical and smoke shells were each around 5% of the total.[40]. The teams with their respective limbers, moving back from the gun position to the "wagon lines". Facsimile reprint by Naval & Military Press, 2005.
By the outbreak of war in 1914, 1225 guns had been produced, including 99 in India. Military History Journal – Vol 2 No 6, December 1973, THE DEVELOPMENT OF ARTILLERY TACTICS 1914–1918 PART I Reprint from The Journal of the Royal Artillery, May, 1922, THE DEVELOPMENT OF ARTILLERY TACTICS 1914–1918 PART II Reprint from The Journal of the Royal Artillery, June, 1922. Observing shrapnel bursts was difficult and, after many experiments, gunpowder pellets were added to the tube between the fuze and the gunpowder ejecting charge in the base of the shell in order to emit a puff of smoke, this had the added advantage of widening the cone of the bullet spread. V Plüskow, "Instructions – Artillery Fighting on the Somme – Part II". The new single-motion "Asbury breech" allowed for higher rates of fire and a Welin tapered screw adopted for the breech. Official History of the Ministry of Munitions Volume X Part III Gun Ammunition: Shell Manufacture, "Artillery in Offensive Operations", Appendix IV, January 1917, "Artillery in Offensive Operations", 13. Technical notes on 18-pounder Barrages. Rheinische Metallwaren und Maschinenfabrik, South African National Museum of Military History, The Central Museum of The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery, Finnish Artillery Museum (Suomen tykistömuseo), "THE OFFICIAL HISTORY OF AUSTRALIA IN THE WAR OF 1914–1918 Volume II", Jaeger Platoon: Finnish Army 1918–1945. New York: Industrial Press, 1915. It is instructive to compare the photograph of the 18-pounder gun in the open at the 1914 Battle of the Marne with that below of the gun almost hidden in a pit at the Second Battle of Bullecourt in 1917. 197. 3 February 1918. On 28 June 1922, Michael Collins effectively started the Irish Civil War by using two 18-pounder field guns, "borrowed" from the British Army, to bombard the Four Courts in Dublin. Nevertheless, on 4 April, the Germans made their final attempt to break the British line having advanced to the area of Villers Bretonneux held by 14th (Light) and 18th (Eastern) Divisions, reinforced by the 16th (Irish) and 39th divisional artilleries although batteries were understrength through losses. Fort Nelson, Fareham, England. Additional Points Brought Out in Open Fighting up to 7 April 1917.

35 were in service in Britain in June 1916[19] and 56 at the end of the First World War. [12] They swiftly established the "conditions to be fulfilled by proposed new equipment"; the most important were the "weight behind the team", then ballistics, rapidity of fire, weight of shell, provision of shield and number of rounds carried. We assume no liability associated with misuse of our products. In the 1930s, the new generation of double base propellant, Cordite W, was also adopted. The 18-pounder could attack lightly protected troops by destroying the parapets of trenches, small houses, and barricades. Some Regular units also had them, the most famous being K (Hondeghem) Battery which won its battle honour with them. Initially, this was by fitting heavy wooden wheels with solid rubber tyres, the carriages becoming Mks IIITR, IVR and VR. Following the experience of the, Major D Hall, December 1973 quotes 1,640 ft/s (500 m/s), Pages 5 & 6 in "Handbook of the 18-PR. It is essential that the artillery hold the line and they will do so." Verpackungsmunition: a weighted drill casing: Flaming Bombs : Found on all cartridge casings made by Patronenfabrik Karlsruhe for Army and Navy : Crown Captured German document by Staff of the 11th A.C., H.Q., Sept 16, 1916. General Sir Martin Farndale, The History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery – The Years of Defeat 1939–41, 1996. Star Its calibre (84 mm) and shell weight were greater than those of the equivalent field guns in French (75 mm) and German (77 mm) service. Barrage fire must be rapid, but it must only last a few minutes; it should not be recommenced except in a case of need". [16] A jacket was shrunk over the wire and "A" tube. It lacked the power to demolish fortifications.

In 1910, after three years of trials, the Number 7 Dial Sight was adopted. Title 18, U.S. Code, Section 921(a)(16) defines antique firearms as all guns manufactured prior to 1899. Redistributed by US Army War College April 1918. In 1914, the standard HE used by UK artillery was Lyddite, a formulation based on picric acid, this was a powerful explosive but expensive. This article is about World War I artillery.

The committee was chaired by General Sir George Marshall, who had been artillery commander in South Africa. If any battery can no longer effectively stop the enemy from its present position, it will at once move forward to a position on the crest, to engage the enemy over open sights. In 1910, the Number 3 Dial Sight, a refined version with a telescope and compass, replaced the goniometer. [22] A temporary preventive measure was the addition of a distinctive armoured box-shaped oil reservoir to the front end of the recuperator to maintain the oil supply and extend spring life. Another 4 were responsible for ammunition supply, and they were usually based behind the gun lines, only meeting the gun crew when they went forward with ammunition. Vickers [59][60], In 1919, it served with the 7th, 16th, 21st and 217th Brigades R.F.A. World War I was referred to at the time -- and even still today -- as The Great War, involving numerous countries in Europe from 1914 to 1918. By 1914, this cordite had been replaced by Cordite MD. The shell did not burst, but projected spherical lead-antimony bullets forward in a cone, these bullets were effective up to 300 yards from the burst.

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